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Hillary Clinton

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Hillary Clinton
Formal portrait of Hillary Clinton with flag, 2009
Clinton as Secretary of State in 2009
67th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 21, 2009 – February 1, 2013
President Barack Obama
Deputy James Steinberg
William Joseph Burns
Preceded by Condoleezza Rice
Succeeded by John Kerry
United States Senator
from New York
In office
January 3, 2001 – January 21, 2009
Preceded by Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Succeeded by Kirsten Gillibrand
First Lady of the United States
In role
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
Preceded by Barbara Bush
Succeeded by Laura Bush
First Lady of Arkansas
In role
January 11, 1983 – December 12, 1992
Preceded by Gay Daniels White
Succeeded by Betty Tucker
In role
January 9, 1979 – January 19, 1981
Preceded by Barbara Pryor
Succeeded by Gay Daniels White
Personal details
Born Hillary Diane Rodham[nb 1]
(1947-10-26) October 26, 1947 (age 67)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Political party Democratic (1968–present)
Other political
Republican (Before 1968)
Spouse(s) Bill Clinton (1975–present)
Children Chelsea
Alma mater Wellesley College
Yale Law School
Religion Methodism (United Methodist Church)
HRC in Iowa APR 2015.jpg This article is part of a series about
Hillary Clinton

Secretary of State

U.S. Senator from New York

First Lady of the United States

Hillary Rodham Clinton Signature.svg
Department of state.svg

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician. She was United States Secretary of State in the administration of President Barack Obama from 2009 to 2013, a United States Senator representing New York from 2001 to 2009, and, as the wife of President Bill Clinton, First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. A leading candidate for the Democratic Party's nomination to the 2008 presidential election, she has announced her candidacy for the Democratic nomination in the 2016 presidential election.

A native of Illinois, Hillary Rodham was the first student commencement speaker at Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a J.D. from Yale Law School in 1973. After a stint as a Congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married Bill Clinton in 1975. She cofounded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families in 1977, she became the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, and became the first female partner at Rose Law Firm in 1979. The National Law Journal twice listed her as one of the hundred most influential lawyers in America. During her tenure as First Lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992, she led a task force that reformed Arkansas's education system and sat on the board of directors of Wal-Mart and several other corporations.

As First Lady of the United States, her major initiative, the Clinton health care plan of 1993, failed to gain approval from the U.S. Congress. In 1997 and 1999, she played a leading role in advocating the creation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program, the Adoption and Safe Families Act, and the Foster Care Independence Act. Her years as First Lady drew a polarized response from the American public. The only First Lady to have been subpoenaed, she testified before a federal grand jury in 1996 regarding the Whitewater controversy, but was never charged with wrongdoing in this or several other investigations during her husband's presidency. Her marriage to the president was subjected to considerable public discussion following the Lewinsky scandal of 1998.

After moving to New York, Clinton was elected in 2000 as the first female senator from the state; she is the only First Lady ever to have run for public office. Following the September 11 attacks, she supported military action in Afghanistan and the Iraq Resolution, but subsequently objected to the George W. Bush administration's conduct of the Iraq war. She opposed most of Bush's domestic policies. Clinton was re-elected to the Senate in 2006. Running in the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries, Clinton won far more primaries and delegates than any other female candidate in American history, but narrowly lost the nomination to Obama.

As Secretary of State in the Obama administration from January 2009 to February 2013, Clinton was at the forefront of the U.S. response to the Arab Spring and advocated the U.S. military intervention in Libya. She took responsibility for security lapses related to the 2012 Benghazi attack, which resulted in the deaths of American consulate personnel, but defended her personal actions in regard to the matter. Clinton visited more countries than any other Secretary of State. She viewed "smart power" as the strategy for asserting U.S. leadership and values, by combining military power with diplomacy and American capabilities in economics, technology, and other areas. She encouraged empowerment of women everywhere and used social media to communicate the U.S. message abroad. Leaving office at the end of Obama's first term, she authored her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements before announcing her second run for the presidency in April 2015.

Early life and education

Early life

Hillary[nb 2] Diane Rodham was born on October 26, 1947, at Edgewater Hospital in Chicago, Illinois.[2][3] She was raised in a United Methodist family, first in Chicago and then, from the age of three, in suburban Park Ridge, Illinois.[4] Her father, Hugh Ellsworth Rodham (1911–1993), was of Welsh and English descent;[5] he managed a successful small business in the textile industry.[6] Her mother, Dorothy Emma Howell (1919–2011), was a homemaker of English, Scottish, French, and Welsh descent.[5][7][8] Hillary has two younger brothers, Hugh and Tony.[9]

Museum display case containing photographs, papers, shoes, doll, and other early childhood artifacts
Mementos of Hillary Rodham's early life are shown at the William J. Clinton Presidential Center

As a child, Hillary Rodham was a teacher's favorite at her public schools in Park Ridge.[10][11] She participated in sports such as swimming and baseball and earned numerous awards as a Brownie and Girl Scout.[10][11] She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in student council, the school newspaper, and was selected for National Honor Society.[2][12] For her senior year, she was redistricted to Maine South High School, where she was a National Merit Finalist and graduated in the top five percent of her class of 1965.[12][13] Her mother wanted her to have an independent, professional career,[8] and her father, otherwise a traditionalist, felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender.[14]

Raised in a politically conservative household,[8] Rodham helped canvass Chicago's South Side at age thirteen following the very close 1960 U.S. presidential election, where she found evidence of electoral fraud against Republican candidate Richard Nixon.[15] She then volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the U.S. presidential election of 1964.[16] Rodham's early political development was shaped most by her high school history teacher (like her father, a fervent anticommunist), who introduced her to Goldwater's The Conscience of a Conservative,[17] and by her Methodist youth minister (like her mother, concerned with issues of social justice), with whom she saw and met civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. in Chicago in 1962.[18]

Wellesley College years

In 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science.[19] During her first year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans;[20][21] with this Rockefeller Republican-oriented group,[22] she supported the elections of Mayor John Lindsay and Senator Edward Brooke.[23] She later stepped down from this position, as her views changed regarding the American Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War.[20] In a letter to her youth minister at this time, she described herself as "a mind conservative and a heart liberal".[24] In contrast to the 1960s current that advocated radical actions against the political system, she sought to work for change within it.[25] In her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy.[26] Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty.[26] In early 1968, she was elected president of the Wellesley College Government Association and served through early 1969;[25][27] she was instrumental in keeping Wellesley from being embroiled in the student disruptions common to other colleges.[25] A number of her fellow students thought she might some day become the first female President of the United States.[25] To help her better understand her changing political views, Professor Alan Schechter assigned Rodham to intern at the House Republican Conference, and she attended the "Wellesley in Washington" summer program.[26] Rodham was invited by moderate New York Republican Representative Charles Goodell to help Governor Nelson Rockefeller's late-entry campaign for the Republican nomination.[26] Rodham attended the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami. However, she was upset by the way Richard Nixon's campaign portrayed Rockefeller and by what she perceived as the convention's "veiled" racist messages, and left the Republican Party for good.[26]

Rodham wrote her senior thesis, a critique of the tactics of radical community organizer Saul Alinsky, under Professor Schechter.[28] (Years later, while she was First Lady, access to the thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation.)[28] In 1969, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts,[29] with departmental honors in political science.[28] Following pressure from some fellow students,[30] she became the first student in Wellesley College history to deliver its commencement address.[27] Her speech received a standing ovation lasting seven minutes.[25][31][32] She was featured in an article published in Life magazine,[33] due to the response to a part of her speech that criticized Senator Brooke, who had spoken before her at the commencement.[30] She also appeared on Irv Kupcinet's nationally syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New England newspapers.[34] That summer, she worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthy conditions).[35]

Yale Law School and postgraduate studies

Rodham then entered Yale Law School. There she served on the editorial board of the Yale Review of Law and Social Action.[36] During her second year, she worked at the Yale Child Study Center,[37] learning about new research on early childhood brain development and working as a research assistant on the seminal work, Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (1973).[38][39] She also took on cases of child abuse at Yale-New Haven Hospital[38] and volunteered at New Haven Legal Services to provide free legal advice for the poor.[37] In the summer of 1970 she was awarded a grant to work at Marian Wright Edelman's Washington Research Project, where she was assigned to Senator Walter Mondale's Subcommittee on Migratory Labor. There she researched migrant workers' problems in housing, sanitation, health and education.[40] Edelman later became a significant mentor.[41] Rodham was recruited by political advisor Anne Wexler to work on the 1970 campaign of Connecticut U.S. Senate candidate Joseph Duffey, with Rodham later crediting Wexler with providing her first job in politics.[42]

In the late spring of 1971 she began dating Bill Clinton, also a law student at Yale. That summer she interned at the Oakland, California, law firm of Treuhaft, Walker and Burnstein.[43] The firm was well known for its support of constitutional rights, civil liberties, and radical causes (two of its four partners were current or former Communist Party members);[43] Rodham worked on child custody and other cases.[nb 3] Clinton canceled his original summer plans in order to live with her in California;[47] the couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school.[44] The following summer, Rodham and Clinton campaigned in Texas for unsuccessful 1972 Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern.[48] She received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale in 1973,[29] having stayed on an extra year to be with Clinton.[49] He first proposed marriage to her following graduation but she declined, uncertain if she wanted to tie her future to his.[49]

Rodham began a year of postgraduate study on children and medicine at the Yale Child Study Center.[50] Her first scholarly article, "Children Under the Law", was published in the Harvard Educational Review in late 1973.[51] Discussing the new children's rights movement, it stated that "child citizens" were "powerless individuals"[52] and argued that children should not be considered equally incompetent from birth to attaining legal age, but that instead courts should presume competence except when there is evidence otherwise, on a case-by-case basis.[53] The article became frequently cited in the field.[54]

Marriage and family, law career and First Lady of Arkansas

From the East Coast to Arkansas

During her postgraduate study, Rodham served as staff attorney for Edelman's newly founded Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts,[55] and as a consultant to the Carnegie Council on Children.[56] In 1974 she was a member of the impeachment inquiry staff in Washington, D.C., advising the House Committee on the Judiciary during the Watergate scandal.[57] Under the guidance of Chief Counsel John Doar and senior member Bernard Nussbaum,[38] Rodham helped research procedures of impeachment and the historical grounds and standards for impeachment.[57] The committee's work culminated in the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974.[57]

By then, Rodham was viewed as someone with a bright political future: Democratic political organizer and consultant Betsey Wright had moved from Texas to Washington the previous year to help guide her career,[58] and Wright thought Rodham had the potential to become a future senator or president.[59] Meanwhile, Clinton had repeatedly asked Rodham to marry him and she continued to demur.[60] After failing the District of Columbia bar exam[61] and passing the Arkansas exam, Rodham came to a key decision. As she later wrote, "I chose to follow my heart instead of my head".[62] She thus followed Bill Clinton to Arkansas, rather than staying in Washington, where career prospects were brighter. He was then teaching law and running for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in his home state. In August 1974, Rodham moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas, and became one of only two female faculty members in the School of Law at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.[63][64] She gave classes in criminal law, where she was considered a rigorous teacher and tough grader, and was the first director of the school's legal aid clinic.[65] She still harbored doubts about marriage, concerned that her separate identity would be lost and that her accomplishments would be viewed in the light of someone else's.[66]

Early Arkansas years

Small, one-story brick-faced house with small yard in front
Hillary Rodham and Bill Clinton lived in this 980 square foot (91 m2) house in the Hillcrest neighborhood of Little Rock from 1977 to 1979 while he was Arkansas Attorney General.[67]

Hillary Rodham and Bill Clinton bought a house in Fayetteville in the summer of 1975 and Hillary finally agreed to marry.[68] Their wedding took place on October 11, 1975, in a Methodist ceremony in their living room.[69] A story about the marriage in the Arkansas Gazette indicated that she was retaining the name Hillary Rodham.[69][70] The motivation was to keep the couple's professional lives separate and avoid apparent conflicts of interest and because, as she told a friend at the time, "it showed that I was still me."[71] The decision did upset both their mothers.[72] Bill Clinton had lost the congressional race in 1974, but in November 1976 was elected Arkansas Attorney General, and so the couple moved to the state capital of Little Rock.[73] There, in February 1977, Rodham joined the venerable Rose Law Firm, a bastion of Arkansan political and economic influence.[74] She specialized in patent infringement and intellectual property law[36] while also working pro bono in child advocacy;[75] she rarely performed litigation work in court.[76]

Rodham maintained her interest in children's law and family policy, publishing the scholarly articles "Children's Policies: Abandonment and Neglect" in 1977[77] and "Children's Rights: A Legal Perspective" in 1979.[78] The latter continued her argument that children's legal competence depended upon their age and other circumstances and that in serious medical rights cases, judicial intervention was sometimes warranted.[53] An American Bar Association chair later said, "Her articles were important, not because they were radically new but because they helped formulate something that had been inchoate."[53] Historian Garry Wills would later describe her as "one of the more important scholar-activists of the last two decades",[79] while conservatives said her theories would usurp traditional parental authority,[80] would allow children to file frivolous lawsuits against their parents,[53] and exemplified legal "crit" theory run amok.[81]

In 1977, Rodham cofounded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, a state-level alliance with the Children's Defense Fund.[36][82] Later that year, President Jimmy Carter (for whom Rodham had been the 1976 campaign director of field operations in Indiana)[83] appointed her to the board of directors of the Legal Services Corporation,[84] and she served in that capacity from 1978 until the end of 1981.[85] From mid-1978 to mid-1980,[nb 4] she served as the chair of that board, the first woman to do so.[86] During her time as chair, funding for the Corporation was expanded from $90 million to $300 million; subsequently she successfully fought President Ronald Reagan's attempts to reduce the funding and change the nature of the organization.[75]

Following her husband's November 1978 election as Governor of Arkansas, Rodham became First Lady of Arkansas in January 1979, her title for twelve years (1979–1981, 1983–1992). Clinton appointed her chair of the Rural Health Advisory Committee the same year,[87] where she secured federal funds to expand medical facilities in Arkansas's poorest areas without affecting doctors' fees.[88]

In 1979, Rodham became the first woman to be made a full partner of Rose Law Firm.[89] From 1978 until they entered the White House, she had a higher salary than that of her husband.[90] During 1978 and 1979, while looking to supplement their income, Rodham made a spectacular profit from trading cattle futures contracts;[91] an initial $1,000 investment generated nearly $100,000 when she stopped trading after ten months.[92] The couple also began their ill-fated investment in the Whitewater Development Corporation real estate venture with Jim and Susan McDougal at this time.[91]

On February 27, 1980, Rodham gave birth to their daughter Chelsea. In November 1980, Bill Clinton was defeated in his bid for re-election.[93]

Later Arkansas years

The Reagans and the Clintons walking a red carpet
Governor Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton attend the 1987 Dinner Honoring the Nation's Governors with President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan.

Bill Clinton returned to the governor's office two years later after winning the election of 1982. During her husband's campaign, Rodham began to use the name Hillary Clinton, or sometimes "Mrs. Bill Clinton", to assuage the concerns of Arkansas voters;[nb 1] she also took a leave of absence from Rose Law to campaign for him full-time.[98] As First Lady of Arkansas again, she made a note of using Hillary Rodham Clinton as her name.[nb 1] She was named chair of the Arkansas Educational Standards Committee in 1983, where she sought to reform the state's court-sanctioned public education system.[99][100] In one of the Clinton governorship's most important initiatives, she fought a prolonged but ultimately successful battle against the Arkansas Education Association to establish mandatory teacher testing and state standards for curriculum and classroom size.[87][99] It became her introduction into the politics of a highly visible public policy effort.[70][99] In 1985, she introduced Arkansas's Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youth, a program that helps parents work with their children in preschool preparedness and literacy.[101] She was named Arkansas Woman of the Year in 1983 and Arkansas Mother of the Year in 1984.[102][103]

Clinton continued to practice law with the Rose Law Firm while she was First Lady of Arkansas. She earned less than the other partners, as she billed fewer hours,[104] but still made more than $200,000 in her final year there.[105] The firm considered her a "rainmaker" because she brought in clients, partly thanks to the prestige she lent it and to her corporate board connections.[105] She was also very influential in the appointment of state judges.[105] Bill Clinton's Republican opponent in his 1986 gubernatorial re-election campaign accused the Clintons of conflict of interest, because Rose Law did state business; the Clintons countered the charge by saying that state fees were walled off by the firm before her profits were calculated.[106]

From 1982 to 1988, Clinton was on the board of directors, sometimes as chair, of the New World Foundation,[107] which funded a variety of New Left interest groups.[108] From 1987 to 1991, she was the first chair of the American Bar Association's Commission on Women in the Profession,[109] created to address gender bias in the legal profession and induce the association to adopt measures to combat it.[109] She was twice named by the National Law Journal as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America: in 1988 and in 1991.[110] When Bill Clinton thought about not running again for governor in 1990, Hillary considered running, but private polls were unfavorable and, in the end, he ran and was re-elected for the final time.[111]

Clinton served on the boards of the Arkansas Children's Hospital Legal Services (1988–1992)[112] and the Children's Defense Fund (as chair, 1986–1992).[2][113] In addition to her positions with nonprofit organizations, she also held positions on the corporate board of directors of TCBY (1985–1992),[114] Wal-Mart Stores (1986–1992)[115] and Lafarge (1990–1992).[116] TCBY and Wal-Mart were Arkansas-based companies that were also clients of Rose Law.[105][117] Clinton was the first female member on Wal-Mart's board, added following pressure on chairman Sam Walton to name a woman to it.[117] Once there, she pushed successfully for Wal-Mart to adopt more environmentally friendly practices, was largely unsuccessful in a campaign for more women to be added to the company's management, and was silent about the company's famously anti-labor union practices.[115][117][118]

Bill Clinton presidential campaign of 1992

Formal black-and-white portrait of Clinton, 1992
Hillary Rodham Clinton, 1992

Hillary Clinton received sustained national attention for the first time when her husband became a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination of 1992. Before the New Hampshire primary, tabloid publications printed claims that Bill Clinton had engaged in an extramarital affair with Arkansas lounge singer Gennifer Flowers.[119] In response, the Clintons appeared together on 60 Minutes, where Bill Clinton denied the affair but acknowledged "causing pain in my marriage".[120] This joint appearance was credited with rescuing his campaign.[121] During the campaign, Hillary Clinton made culturally disparaging remarks about Tammy Wynette and her outlook on marriage,[nb 5] and about women staying home and baking cookies and having teas,[nb 6] that were ill-considered by her own admission. Bill Clinton said that in electing him, the nation would "get two for the price of one", referring to the prominent role his wife would assume.[127] Beginning with Daniel Wattenberg's August 1992 The American Spectator article "The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock", Hillary Clinton's own past ideological and ethical record came under attack from conservatives.[80] At least twenty other articles in major publications also drew comparisons between her and Lady Macbeth.[128]

First Lady of the United States

Role as First Lady

When Bill Clinton took office as president in January 1993, Hillary Rodham Clinton became the First Lady of the United States, and her press secretary reiterated that she would be using that form of her name.[nb 1] She was the first First Lady to hold a postgraduate degree and to have her own professional career up to the time of entering the White House.[129] She was also the first to have an office in the West Wing of the White House in addition to the usual First Lady offices in the East Wing.[50][130] She was part of the innermost circle vetting appointments to the new administration and her choices filled at least eleven top-level positions and dozens more lower-level ones.[131] After Eleanor Roosevelt, Clinton is regarded as the most openly empowered presidential wife in American history.[132][133]

Chelsea, Hillary, and Bill Clinton depart a helicopter
The Clinton family arrives at the White House on Marine One, 1993

Some critics called it inappropriate for the First Lady to play a central role in matters of public policy. Supporters pointed out that Clinton's role in policy was no different from that of other White House advisors and that voters had been well aware that she would play an active role in her husband's presidency.[134] Bill Clinton's campaign promise of "two for the price of one" led opponents to refer derisively to the Clintons as "co-presidents" or sometimes the Arkansas label "Billary".[87][135][136] The pressures of conflicting ideas about the role of a First Lady were enough to send Clinton into "imaginary discussions" with the also-politically-active Eleanor Roosevelt.[nb 7] From the time she came to Washington, she also found refuge in a prayer group of The Fellowship that featured many wives of conservative Washington figures.[140][141] Triggered in part by the death of her father in April 1993, she publicly sought to find a synthesis of Methodist teachings, liberal religious political philosophy, and Tikkun editor Michael Lerner's "politics of meaning" to overcome what she saw as America's "sleeping sickness of the soul"; that would lead to a willingness "to remold society by redefining what it means to be a human being in the twentieth century, moving into a new millennium."[142][143] Other segments of the public focused on her appearance, which had evolved over time from inattention to fashion during her days in Arkansas,[144] to a popular site in the early days of the World Wide Web devoted to showing her many different, and frequently analyzed, hairstyles as First Lady,[145][146] to an appearance on the cover of Vogue magazine in 1998.[147]

Health care and other policy initiatives

In January 1993, Bill appointed Hillary to head the Task Force on National Health Care Reform, hoping to replicate the success she had in leading the effort for Arkansas education reform.[148] Unconvinced regarding the merits of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), she privately urged that passage of health care reform be given higher priority.[149][150] The recommendation of the task force became known as the Clinton health care plan, a comprehensive proposal that would require employers to provide health coverage to their employees through individual health maintenance organizations. Its opponents quickly derided the plan as "Hillarycare"; some protesters against it became vitriolic, and during a July 1994 bus tour to rally support for the plan, she wore a bulletproof vest at times.[151][152]

Clinton greets U.S. troops at Tuzla Air Base in Bosnia during a December 1997 visit

Failing to gather enough support for a floor vote in either the House or the Senate, although Democrats controlled both chambers, the proposal was abandoned in September 1994.[151] Clinton later acknowledged in her memoir that her political inexperience partly contributed to the defeat, but cited many other factors. The First Lady's approval ratings, which had generally been in the high-50s percent range during her first year, fell to 44 percent in April 1994 and 35 percent by September 1994.[153] Republicans made the Clinton health care plan a major campaign issue of the 1994 midterm elections,[154] which saw a net Republican gain of fifty-three seats in the House election and seven in the Senate election, winning control of both; many analysts and pollsters found the plan to be a major factor in the Democrats' defeat, especially among independent voters.[155] The White House subsequently sought to downplay Hillary Clinton's role in shaping policy.[156] Opponents of universal health care would continue to use "Hillarycare" as a pejorative label for similar plans by others.[157]

Clinton reads a book to an African American grade school class
Clinton reads to a Maryland child during Read Across America Day, 1998

Along with Senators Ted Kennedy and Orrin Hatch, she was a force behind the passage of the State Children's Health Insurance Program in 1997, a federal effort that provided state support for children whose parents could not provide them with health coverage, and conducted outreach efforts on behalf of enrolling children in the program once it became law.[158] She promoted nationwide immunization against childhood illnesses and encouraged older women to seek a mammogram to detect breast cancer, with coverage provided by Medicare.[159] She successfully sought to increase research funding for prostate cancer and childhood asthma at the National Institutes of Health.[50] The First Lady worked to investigate reports of an illness that affected veterans of the Gulf War, which became known as the Gulf War syndrome.[50] Together with Attorney General Janet Reno, Clinton helped create the Office on Violence Against Women at the Department of Justice.[50] In 1997, she initiated and shepherded the Adoption and Safe Families Act, which she regarded as her greatest accomplishment as First Lady.[50][160] In 1999, she was instrumental in the passage of the Foster Care Independence Act, which doubled federal monies for teenagers aging out of foster care.[160] As First Lady, Clinton hosted numerous White House conferences, including ones on Child Care (1997),[161] on Early Childhood Development and Learning (1997),[162] and on Children and Adolescents (2000).[163] She also hosted the first-ever White House Conference on Teenagers (2000)[164] and the first-ever White House Conference on Philanthropy (1999).[165]

Clinton traveled to 79 countries during this time,[166] breaking the mark for most-traveled First Lady held by Pat Nixon.[167] She did not hold a security clearance or attend National Security Council meetings, but played a role in U.S. diplomacy attaining its objectives.[168] A March 1995 five-nation trip to South Asia, on behest of the U.S. State Department and without her husband, sought to improve relations with India and Pakistan.[169] Clinton was troubled by the plight of women she encountered, but found a warm response from the people of the countries she visited and gained a better relationship with the American press corps.[169][170] The trip was a transformative experience for her and presaged her eventual career in diplomacy.[171] In a September 1995 speech before the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, Clinton argued very forcefully against practices that abused women around the world and in the People's Republic of China itself,[172] declaring "that it is no longer acceptable to discuss women's rights as separate from human rights".[172] Delegates from over 180 countries heard her say: "If there is one message that echoes forth from this conference, let it be that human rights are women's rights and women's rights are human rights, once and for all."[173] In doing so, she resisted both internal administration and Chinese pressure to soften her remarks.[166][173] She was one of the most prominent international figures during the late 1990s to speak out against the treatment of Afghan women by the Islamist fundamentalist Taliban.[174][175] She helped create Vital Voices, an international initiative sponsored by the United States to promote the participation of women in the political processes of their countries.[176] It and Clinton's own visits encouraged women to make themselves heard in the Northern Ireland peace process.[177]

Whitewater and other investigations

For more details on these investigations, see Whitewater controversy, Travelgate, Filegate, and Hillary Rodham cattle futures controversy.

First Lady Clinton was a subject of several investigations by the United States Office of the Independent Counsel, committees of the U.S. Congress, and the press.

The Whitewater controversy was the focus of media attention from the publication of a New York Times report during the 1992 presidential campaign[178] and throughout her time as First Lady. The Clintons had lost their late-1970s investment in the Whitewater Development Corporation;[179] at the same time, their partners in that investment, Jim and Susan McDougal, operated Madison Guaranty, a savings and loan institution that retained the legal services of Rose Law Firm[179] and may have been improperly subsidizing Whitewater losses.[178] Madison Guaranty later failed, and Clinton's work at Rose was scrutinized for a possible conflict of interest in representing the bank before state regulators that her husband had appointed.[178] She claimed she had done minimal work for the bank.[180] Independent counsels Robert Fiske and Kenneth Starr subpoenaed Clinton's legal billing records; she said she did not know where they were.[181][182] The records were found in the First Lady's White House book room after a two-year search and delivered to investigators in early 1996.[182] The delayed appearance of the records sparked intense interest and another investigation concerning how they surfaced and where they had been.[182] Clinton's staff attributed the problem to continual changes in White House storage areas since the move from the Arkansas Governor's Mansion.[183] On January 26, 1996, Clinton became the first First Lady to be subpoenaed to testify before a Federal grand jury.[181] After several Independent Counsels had investigated, a final report was issued in 2000 that stated there was insufficient evidence that either Clinton had engaged in criminal wrongdoing.[184]

Chelsea, Bill, and Hillary Clinton take an inauguration day walk
The Clinton family takes an Inauguration Day walk down Pennsylvania Avenue to start President Bill Clinton's second term in office, January 20, 1997.

Scrutiny of the May 1993 firings of the White House Travel Office employees, an affair that became known as "Travelgate", began with charges that the White House had used audited financial irregularities in the Travel Office operation as an excuse to replace the staff with friends from Arkansas.[185] The 1996 discovery of a two-year-old White House memo caused the investigation to focus on whether Hillary Clinton had orchestrated the firings and whether the statements she made to investigators about her role in the firings were true.[186][187] The 2000 final Independent Counsel report concluded she was involved in the firings and that she had made "factually false" statements, but that there was insufficient evidence that she knew the statements were false, or knew that her actions would lead to firings, to prosecute her.[188]

Following deputy White House counsel Vince Foster's July 1993 suicide, allegations were made that Hillary Clinton had ordered the removal of potentially damaging files (related to Whitewater or other matters) from Foster's office on the night of his death.[189] Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr investigated this, and by 1999, Starr was reported to be holding the investigation open, despite his staff having told him there was no case to be made.[190] When Starr's successor Robert Ray issued his final Whitewater reports in 2000, no claims were made against Hillary Clinton regarding this.[184]

An outgrowth of the Travelgate investigation was the June 1996 discovery of improper White House access to hundreds of FBI background reports on former Republican White House employees, an affair that some called "Filegate".[191] Accusations were made that Hillary Clinton had requested these files and that she had recommended hiring an unqualified individual to head the White House Security Office.[192] The 2000 final Independent Counsel report found no substantial or credible evidence that Hillary Clinton had any role or showed any misconduct in the matter.[191]

In March 1994, newspaper reports revealed her spectacular profits from cattle futures trading in 1978–1979;[193] allegations were made in the press of conflict of interest and disguised bribery,[194] and several individuals analyzed her trading records, but no formal investigation was made and she was never charged with any wrongdoing.[194]

Lewinsky scandal

In 1998, the Clintons' relationship became the subject of much speculation when investigations revealed that the President had had extramarital relations with White House intern Monica Lewinsky.[195] Events surrounding the Lewinsky scandal eventually led to the impeachment of Bill Clinton by the House of Representatives. When the allegations against her husband were first made public, Hillary Clinton stated that they were the result of a "vast right-wing conspiracy",[196] characterizing the Lewinsky charges as the latest in a long, organized, collaborative series of charges by Bill Clinton's political enemies[nb 8] rather than any wrongdoing by her husband. She later said that she had been misled by her husband's initial claims that no affair had taken place.[198] After the evidence of President Clinton's encounters with Lewinsky became incontrovertible, she issued a public statement reaffirming her commitment to their marriage, but privately was reported to be furious at him and was unsure if she wanted to stay in the marriage.[199] The White House residence staff noticed a pronounced level of tension between the couple during this period.[200]

Public reaction varied: some women admired her strength and poise in private matters made public, some sympathized with her as a victim of her husband's insensitive behavior, others criticized her as being an enabler to her husband's indiscretions, while still others accused her of cynically staying in a failed marriage as a way of keeping or even fostering her own political influence.[201] Her public approval ratings in the wake of the revelations shot upward to around 70 percent, the highest they had ever been.[201] In her 2003 memoir, she would attribute her decision to stay married to "a love that has persisted for decades" and add: "No one understands me better and no one can make me laugh the way Bill does. Even after all these years, he is still the most interesting, energizing and fully alive person I have ever met."[202]

Traditional duties

Clinton initiated and was Founding Chair of the Save America's Treasures program, a national effort that matched federal funds to private donations to preserve and restore historic items and sites,[203] including the flag that inspired "The Star-Spangled Banner" and the First Ladies Historic Site in Canton, Ohio.[50] She was head of the White House Millennium Council[204] and hosted Millennium Evenings,[205] a series of lectures that discussed futures studies, one of which became the first live simultaneous webcast from the White House.[50] Clinton also created the first White House Sculpture Garden, located in the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden, which displayed large contemporary American works of art loaned from museums.[206]

In the White House, Clinton placed donated handicrafts of contemporary American artisans, such as pottery and glassware, on rotating display in the state rooms.[50] She oversaw the restoration of the Blue Room to be historically authentic to the period of James Monroe[207] and the Map Room to how it looked during World War II.[208] Working with Arkansas interior decorator Kaki Hockersmith over an eight-year period, she oversaw extensive, privately-funded redecoration efforts around the building, often trying to make it look brighter.[209] These included changing the look of the Treaty Room, a presidential study, to along 19th century lines.[208] Overall the redecoration brought mixed notices, with Victorian furnishings for the Lincoln Sitting Room being criticized the most.[209] Clinton hosted many large-scale events at the White House, such as a Saint Patrick's Day reception, a state dinner for visiting Chinese dignitaries, a contemporary music concert that raised funds for music education in public schools, a New Year's Eve celebration at the turn of the 21st century, and a state dinner honoring the bicentennial of the White House in November 2000.[50]

2000 U.S. Senate election

When New York's long-serving United States Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement in November 1998, several prominent Democratic figures, including Representative Charles B. Rangel of New York, urged Clinton to run for Moynihan's open seat in the United States Senate election of 2000.[210] Once she decided to run, the Clintons purchased a home in Chappaqua, New York, north of New York City, in September 1999.[211] She became the first First Lady of the United States to be a candidate for elected office.[212] Initially, Clinton expected to face Rudy Giuliani, the Mayor of New York City, as her Republican opponent in the election. Giuliani withdrew from the race in May 2000 after he was diagnosed with prostate cancer and matters related to his failing marriage became public, and Clinton instead faced Rick Lazio, a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives representing New York's 2nd congressional district. Throughout the campaign, opponents accused Clinton of carpetbagging, as she had never resided in New York nor participated in the state's politics before this race. Clinton began her campaign by visiting every county in the state, in a "listening tour" of small-group settings.[213] During the campaign, she devoted considerable time in traditionally Republican Upstate New York regions.[214] Clinton vowed to improve the economic situation in those areas, promising to deliver 200,000 jobs to the state over her term. Her plan included tax credits to reward job creation and encourage business investment, especially in the high-tech sector. She called for personal tax cuts for college tuition and long-term care.[214]

The contest drew national attention. Lazio blundered during a September debate by seeming to invade Clinton's personal space trying to get her to sign a fundraising agreement.[215] The campaigns of Clinton and Lazio, along with Giuliani's initial effort, spent a record combined $90 million.[216] Clinton won the election on November 7, 2000, with 55 percent of the vote to Lazio's 43 percent.[215] She was sworn in as United States Senator on January 3, 2001.[217]

United States Senate

First term

Clinton taking oath as U.S. Senator
Reenactment of Hillary Rodham Clinton being sworn in as a United States Senator by Vice President Al Gore in the Old Senate Chamber, as President Clinton and daughter Chelsea look on. January 3, 2001.
Formal portrait of Clinton in office, 2001
Clinton's official photo as U.S. Senator

Upon entering the Senate, Clinton maintained a low public profile and built relationships with senators from both parties.[218] She forged alliances with religiously inclined senators by becoming a regular participant in the Senate Prayer Breakfast.[140][219] She served on five Senate committees: Committee on Budget (2001–2002),[220] Committee on Armed Services (2003–2009),[221] Committee on Environment and Public Works (2001–2009),[220] Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (2001–2009)[220] and Special Committee on Aging.[222] She was also a member of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe[223] (2001–2009).[224]

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Clinton sought to obtain funding for the recovery efforts in New York City and security improvements in her state. Working with New York's senior senator, Charles Schumer, she was instrumental in securing $21 billion in funding for the World Trade Center site's redevelopment.[219][225] She subsequently took a leading role in investigating the health issues faced by 9/11 first responders.[226] Clinton voted for the USA Patriot Act in October 2001. In 2005, when the act was up for renewal, she worked to address some civil liberties concerns with it,[227] before voting in favor of a compromise renewed act in March 2006 that gained large majority support.[228]

Clinton strongly supported the 2001 U.S. military action in Afghanistan, saying it was a chance to combat terrorism while improving the lives of Afghan women who suffered under the Taliban government.[229] Clinton voted in favor of the October 2002 Iraq War Resolution, which authorized President George W. Bush to use military force against Iraq.[230]

After the Iraq War began, Clinton made trips to Iraq and Afghanistan to visit American troops stationed there. On a visit to Iraq in February 2005, Clinton noted that the insurgency had failed to disrupt the democratic elections held earlier and that parts of the country were functioning well.[231] Observing that war deployments were draining regular and reserve forces, she co-introduced legislation to increase the size of the regular United States Army by 80,000 soldiers to ease the strain.[232] In late 2005, Clinton said that while immediate withdrawal from Iraq would be a mistake, Bush's pledge to stay "until the job is done" was also misguided, as it gave Iraqis "an open-ended invitation not to take care of themselves".[233] Her stance caused frustration among those in the Democratic Party who favored quick withdrawal.[234] Clinton supported retaining and improving health benefits for veterans and lobbied against the closure of several military bases.[235]

Senator Clinton voted against President Bush's two major tax cut packages, the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003.[236] Clinton voted against the 2005 confirmation of John G. Roberts as Chief Justice of the United States and the 2006 confirmation of Samuel Alito to the United States Supreme Court.[237]

In 2005, Clinton called for the Federal Trade Commission to investigate how hidden sex scenes showed up in the controversial video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas.[238] Along with Senators Joe Lieberman and Evan Bayh, she introduced the Family Entertainment Protection Act, intended to protect children from inappropriate content found in video games. In 2004 and 2006, Clinton voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment that sought to prohibit same-sex marriage.[236][239]

Looking to establish a "progressive infrastructure" to rival that of American conservatism, Clinton played a formative role in conversations that led to the 2003 founding of former Clinton administration chief of staff John Podesta's Center for American Progress, shared aides with Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, founded in 2003, and advised the Clintons' former antagonist David Brock's Media Matters for America, created in 2004.[240] Following the 2004 Senate elections, she successfully pushed new Democratic Senate leader Harry Reid to create a Senate war room to handle daily political messaging.[241]

2006 re-election campaign

In November 2004, Clinton announced that she would seek a second Senate term. The early frontrunner for the Republican nomination, Westchester County District Attorney Jeanine Pirro, withdrew from the contest after several months of poor campaign performance.[242] Clinton easily won the Democratic nomination over opposition from antiwar activist Jonathan Tasini.[243] Clinton's eventual opponent in the general election was Republican candidate John Spencer, a former mayor of Yonkers. She won the election on November 7, 2006, with 67 percent of the vote to Spencer's 31 percent,[244] carrying all but four of New York's sixty-two counties.[245] Clinton spent $36 million for her re-election, more than any other candidate for Senate in the 2006 elections. Some Democrats criticized her for spending too much in a one-sided contest, while some supporters were concerned she did not leave more funds for a potential presidential bid in 2008.[246] In the following months, she transferred $10 million of her Senate funds toward her presidential campaign.[247]

Second term

Clinton listening at a Senate hearing
Senator Clinton listens as Chief of Naval Operations Navy Admiral Mike Mullen responds to a question during his 2007 confirmation hearing with the Senate Armed Services Committee.

Clinton opposed the Iraq War troop surge of 2007.[248][nb 9] In March of that year, she voted in favor of a war-spending bill that required President Bush to begin withdrawing troops from Iraq by a deadline; it passed almost completely along party lines[250] but was subsequently vetoed by Bush. In May, a compromise war funding bill that removed withdrawal deadlines but tied funding to progress benchmarks for the Iraqi government passed the Senate by a vote of 80–14 and would be signed by Bush; Clinton was one of those who voted against it.[251] Clinton responded to General David Petraeus's September 2007 Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq by saying, "I think that the reports that you provide to us really require a willing suspension of disbelief."[252]

In March 2007, in response to the dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy, Clinton called on Attorney General Alberto Gonzales to resign.[253] Regarding the high-profile, hotly debated comprehensive immigration reform bill known as the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007, Clinton cast several votes in support of the bill, which eventually failed to gain cloture.[254]

As the financial crisis of 2007–2008 reached a peak with the liquidity crisis of September 2008, Clinton supported the proposed bailout of United States financial system, voting in favor of the $700 billion law that created the Troubled Asset Relief Program, saying that it represented the interests of the American people. It passed the Senate 74–25.[255]

2008 presidential campaign

Clinton had been preparing for a potential candidacy for United States President since at least early 2003.[256] On January 20, 2007, she announced via her website the formation of a presidential exploratory committee for the United States presidential election of 2008, stating "I'm in, and I'm in to win."[257] No woman had ever been nominated by a major party for the presidency. When Bill Clinton became president in 1993, a blind trust was established; in April 2007 the Clintons liquidated the blind trust to avoid the possibility of ethical conflicts or political embarrassments as Hillary Clinton undertook her presidential race.[258] Later disclosure statements revealed that the couple's worth was now upwards of $50 million,[258] and that they had earned over $100 million since 2000, with most of it coming from Bill Clinton's books, speaking engagements, and other activities.[259]

Throughout the first half of 2007, Clinton led candidates competing for the Democratic presidential nomination in opinion polls for the election. Senator Barack Obama of Illinois and former Senator John Edwards of North Carolina were her strongest competitors.[230] The biggest threat to her campaign was her past support of the Iraq War, which Obama had opposed from the beginning.[230] Clinton and Obama both set records for early fundraising, swapping the money lead each quarter.[260]

Clinton speaking at a college rally
Clinton campaigning at Augsburg College in Minneapolis, Minnesota, two days before Super Tuesday 2008.

By September 2007, polling in the first six states holding Democratic contests showed that Clinton was leading in all of them, with the races being closest in Iowa and South Carolina. By the following month, national polls showed Clinton far ahead of Democratic competitors.[261] At the end of October, Clinton suffered a rare poor debate performance against Obama, Edwards, and her other opponents.[262][263] Obama's message of change began to resonate with the Democratic electorate better than Clinton's message of experience.[264] The race tightened considerably, especially in the early states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina, with Clinton losing her lead in some polls by December.[265]

In the first vote of 2008, she placed third in the January 3 Iowa Democratic caucus behind Obama and Edwards.[266] Obama gained ground in national polling in the next few days, with all polls predicting a victory for him in the New Hampshire primary.[267] Clinton gained a surprise win there on January 8, defeating Obama narrowly.[268] It was the first time a woman had won a major American party's presidential primary for the purposes of delegate selection.[269] Explanations for Clinton's New Hampshire comeback varied but often centered on her being seen more sympathetically, especially by women, after her eyes welled with tears and her voice broke while responding to a voter's question the day before the election.[270]

The nature of the contest fractured in the next few days. Several remarks by Bill Clinton and other surrogates,[271] and a remark by Hillary Clinton concerning Martin Luther King, Jr. and Lyndon B. Johnson,[nb 10] were perceived by many as, accidentally or intentionally, limiting Obama as a racially oriented candidate or otherwise denying the post-racial significance and accomplishments of his campaign.[272] Despite attempts by both Hillary Clinton and Obama to downplay the issue, Democratic voting became more polarized as a result, with Clinton losing much of her support among African Americans.[271][273] She lost by a two-to-one margin to Obama in the January 26 South Carolina primary,[273] setting up, with Edwards soon dropping out, an intense two-person contest for the twenty-two February 5 Super Tuesday states. Bill Clinton had made more statements attracting criticism for their perceived racial implications late in the South Carolina campaign, and his role was seen as damaging enough to her that a wave of supporters within and outside of the campaign said the former President "needs to stop".[274] The South Carolina campaign had done lasting damage to Clinton, eroding her support among the Democratic establishment and leading to the prized endorsement of Obama by Ted Kennedy.[275]

Chart of 50 states
State-by-state popular votes in the Democratic primaries and caucuses, shaded by percentage won: Obama in purple, Clinton in green. (Popular vote winners and delegate winners differed in New Hampshire, Nevada, Missouri, Texas, and Guam.)

On Super Tuesday, Clinton won the largest states, such as California, New York, New Jersey and Massachusetts, while Obama won more states;[276] they almost evenly split the total popular vote.[277] But Obama was gaining more pledged delegates for his share of the popular vote due to better exploitation of the Democratic proportional allocation rules.[278]

The Clinton campaign had counted on winning the nomination by Super Tuesday and was unprepared financially and logistically for a prolonged effort; lagging in Internet fundraising, Clinton began loaning money to her campaign.[264][279] There was continuous turmoil within the campaign staff and she made several top-level personnel changes.[279][280] Obama won the next eleven February contests across the country, often by large margins, and took a significant pledged delegate lead over Clinton.[278][279] On March 4, Clinton broke the string of losses by winning in Ohio among other places,[279] where her criticism of NAFTA, a major legacy of her husband's presidency, had been a key issue.[281] Throughout the campaign, Obama dominated caucuses, for which the Clinton campaign largely ignored preparation.[264][278] Obama did well in primaries where African Americans or younger, college-educated, or more affluent voters were heavily represented; Clinton did well in primaries where Hispanics or older, non-college-educated, or working-class white voters predominated.[282][283] Behind in delegates, Clinton's best hope of winning the nomination came in persuading uncommitted, party-appointed superdelegates.[284]

Clinton speaking before a convention audience
Clinton speaks on behalf of her former rival, Barack Obama, during the second night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver.

Clinton's admission in late March, that her repeated campaign statements about having been under hostile fire from snipers during a March 1996 visit to U.S. troops at Tuzla Air Base in Bosnia and Herzegovina were not true, attracted considerable media attention.[285] On April 22, she won the Pennsylvania primary and kept her campaign alive.[286] On May 6, a narrower-than-expected win in the Indiana primary, coupled with a large loss in the North Carolina primary, ended any realistic chance she had of winning the nomination.[286] She vowed to stay on through the remaining primaries, but stopped attacks against Obama; as one advisor stated, "She could accept losing. She could not accept quitting."[286] She won some of the remaining contests, and indeed over the last three months of the campaign won more delegates, states, and votes than Obama, but she failed to overcome Obama's lead.[279]

Following the final primaries on June 3, 2008, Obama had gained enough delegates to become the presumptive nominee.[287] In a speech before her supporters on June 7, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama.[288] By campaign's end, Clinton had won 1,640 pledged delegates to Obama's 1,763;[289] at the time of the clinching, Clinton had 286 superdelegates to Obama's 395,[290] with those numbers widening to 256 versus 438 once Obama was acknowledged the winner.[289] Clinton and Obama each received over 17 million votes during the nomination process[nb 11] with both breaking the previous record.[291] Clinton was the first woman to run in the primary or caucus of every state, and she eclipsed, by a very wide margin, Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's 1972 marks for most votes garnered and delegates won by a woman.[269] Clinton gave a passionate speech supporting Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention and campaigned frequently for him in Fall 2008, which concluded with his victory over McCain in the general election on November 4.[292] Clinton's campaign ended up severely in debt; she owed millions of dollars to outside vendors and wrote off the $13 million that she lent it herself.[293] The debt was eventually paid off by the beginning of 2013.[293]

U.S. Secretary of State

Nomination and confirmation

Clinton taking oath as Secretary of State
Clinton takes the oath of office as Secretary of State, administered by Associate Judge Kathryn Oberly, as Bill Clinton holds a Bible.

In mid-November 2008, President-elect Obama and Clinton discussed the possibility of her serving as U.S. Secretary of State in his administration.[294] She was initially quite reluctant, but on November 20, she told Obama she would accept the position.[295][296] On December 1, President-elect Obama formally announced that Clinton would be his nominee for Secretary of State.[297] Clinton said she did not want to leave the Senate, but that the new position represented a "difficult and exciting adventure".[297] As part of the nomination and in order to relieve concerns of conflict of interest, Bill Clinton agreed to accept several conditions and restrictions regarding his ongoing activities and fundraising efforts for the William J. Clinton Foundation and Clinton Global Initiative.[298]

The appointment required a Saxbe fix, passed and signed into law in December 2008.[299] Confirmation hearings before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee began on January 13, 2009, a week before the Obama inauguration; two days later, the Committee voted 16–1 to approve Clinton.[300] By this time, her public approval rating had reached 65 percent, the highest point since the Lewinsky scandal.[301] On January 21, 2009, Clinton was confirmed in the full Senate by a vote of 94–2.[302] Clinton took the oath of office of Secretary of State and resigned from the Senate that same day.[303] She became the first former First Lady to serve in the United States Cabinet.[304]

Initial efforts and events of 2009–10

Obama whispering to Clinton at a summit meeting
Obama and Clinton speaking with one another at the 21st NATO summit, April 2009

Clinton spent her initial days as Secretary of State telephoning dozens of world leaders and indicating that U.S. foreign policy would change direction: "We have a lot of damage to repair."[305] She advocated an expanded role in global economic issues for the State Department and cited the need for an increased U.S. diplomatic presence, especially in Iraq where the Defense Department had conducted diplomatic missions.[306] Clinton announced the most ambitious of her departmental reforms, the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, which establishes specific objectives for the State Department's diplomatic missions abroad; it was modeled after a similar process in the Defense Department that she was familiar with from her time on the Senate Armed Services Committee.[307] The first such review was issued in late 2010 and called for the U.S. leading through "civilian power" as a cost-effective way of responding to international challenges and defusing crises.[308] It also sought to institutionalize goals of empowering women throughout the world.[173] A cause Clinton advocated throughout her tenure was the adoption of cookstoves in the developing world, to foster cleaner and more environmentally sound food preparation and reduce smoke dangers to women.[295]

Clinton with Sergey Lavrov and the reset button
Clinton with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and the "reset button", March 2009

In March 2009, Clinton prevailed over Vice President Joe Biden on an internal debate to send an additional 21,000 troops to the war in Afghanistan and supported Obama's plan to tie the surge to a timetable for eventual withdrawal.[309] The same month, Clinton presented Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov with a "reset button" symbolizing U.S. attempts to rebuild ties with that country under its new president, Dmitry Medvedev.[310][311] The photo op was remembered for a mistranslation into Russian. The policy, which became known as the Russian reset, led to improved cooperation in several areas during Medvedev's time in office, but relations would worsen considerably following Vladimir Putin's return to the position in 2012.[310] In October 2009, on a trip to Switzerland, Clinton's intervention overcame last-minute snags and saved the signing of an historic Turkish–Armenian accord that established diplomatic relations and opened the border between the two long-hostile nations.[312][313] In Pakistan, she engaged in several unusually blunt discussions with students, talk show hosts, and tribal elders, in an attempt to repair the Pakistani image of the U.S.[171][nb 12]

Clinton and Obama forged a good working relationship without power struggles; she was a team player within the administration and a defender of it to the outside, and was careful that neither she nor her husband would upstage the president.[315][316] Clinton formed an alliance with Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and the Obama national security team as a whole featured much less discord than in previous administrations.[295][317] Obama and Clinton both approached foreign policy as a largely non-ideological, pragmatic exercise.[295] She met with him weekly but did not have the close, daily relationship that some of her predecessors had had with their presidents;[315] moreover, certain key areas of policymaking were kept inside the White House or Pentagon.[318][319] Nevertheless, the president had trust in her actions.[295]

Clinton greeting U.S. military personnel
Clinton greets service members at Andersen Air Force Base, October 2010

In a major speech in January 2010, Clinton drew analogies between the Iron Curtain and the free and unfree Internet.[320] Chinese officials reacted negatively towards it and the speech garnered attention as the first time a senior American official had clearly defined the Internet as a key element of American foreign policy.[321] In July 2010, Secretary Clinton visited Korea, Vietnam, Pakistan and Afghanistan, all the while preparing for the July 31 wedding of daughter Chelsea amid much media attention.[322] In late November 2010, Clinton led the U.S. damage control effort after WikiLeaks released confidential State Department cables containing blunt statements and assessments by U.S. and foreign diplomats.[323]

Events of 2011–13 and overall themes

The 2011 Egyptian protests posed the biggest foreign policy crisis for the administration yet.[324] Clinton's public response quickly evolved from an early assessment that the government of Hosni Mubarak was "stable", to a stance that there needed to be an "orderly transition [to] a democratic participatory government", to a condemnation of violence against the protesters.[325][326] Obama came to rely upon Clinton's advice, organization, and personal connections in the behind-the-scenes response to developments.[324] As Arab Spring protests spread throughout the region, Clinton was at the forefront of a U.S. response that she recognized was sometimes contradictory, backing some regimes while supporting protesters against others.[327] As the Libyan Civil War took place, Clinton's shift in favor of military intervention aligned her with Ambassador to the U.N. Susan Rice and National Security Council figure Samantha Power and was a key turning point in overcoming internal administration opposition from Defense Secretary Gates, security advisor Thomas Donilon, and counterterrorism advisor John Brennan in gaining the backing for, and Arab and U.N. approval of, the 2011 military intervention in Libya.[327][328][329] She later used U.S. allies and what she called "convening power" to help keep the Libyan rebels unified as they eventually overthrew the Gaddafi regime.[329] During April 2011 internal deliberations of the president's innermost circle of advisors over whether to order U.S. special forces to conduct a raid into Pakistan against Osama bin Laden, Clinton was among those who argued in favor, saying the importance of getting bin Laden outweighed the risks to the U.S. relationship with Pakistan.[330][331] Following completion of the mission on May 2, which resulted in bin Laden's death, Clinton played a key role in the administration's decision not to release photographs of the dead al-Qaeda leader.[332]

Clinton standing with Aung San Suu Kyi
Secretary Clinton meeting with Burmese democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi as part of her historic December 2011 visit to that country.

In a December 2011 speech before the United Nations Human Rights Council, Clinton said that "Gay rights are human rights", and that the U.S. would advocate for gay rights and legal protections of gays abroad.[333] The same period saw her overcome internal administration opposition with a direct appeal to Obama and stage the first visit to Burma by a U.S. secretary of state since 1955, as she met with Burmese leaders as well as opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and sought to support the 2011 Burmese democratic reforms.[334][335] She also said that the 21st century would be "America's Pacific century",[336] a declaration that was part of the Obama administration's "pivot to Asia".[337]

During the Syrian Civil War, Clinton and the Obama administration initially sought to persuade Syrian President Bashir al-Assad to engage popular demonstrations with reform, then as government violence rose, in August 2011 called for him to relinquish power.[338] The administration joined a number of allied countries in delivering non-lethal assistance to rebels opposed to the Assad government as well as to humanitarian groups working in Syria.[339] During mid-2012, Clinton formed a plan with CIA Director David Petraeus to further strengthen the opposition by arming and training vetted groups of Syrian rebels, but the proposal was rejected by the White House, who were reluctant to become entangled in the conflict, particularly during an election year, and who feared that extremists hidden among the rebels might turn the weapons against other targets.[334][340]

Obama and Clinton at somber occasion
President Obama and Secretary Clinton honor the Benghazi attack victims at the Transfer of Remains Ceremony held at Andrews Air Force Base on September 14, 2012.

On September 11, 2012, the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya was attacked, resulting in the deaths of the U.S. Ambassador, J. Christopher Stevens, and three other Americans. The attack, and questions surrounding the security of the U.S. consulate and varying explanations afterward for what had happened, became politically controversial in the U.S.[341] On October 15, Clinton said that regarding the question of security lapses, she took responsibility, while the differing explanations were due to the inevitable fog of war confusion after events like this.[341][342] On December 19, a panel led by Thomas R. Pickering and Michael Mullen issued its report on the matter. It was sharply critical of State Department officials in Washington for ignoring requests for more guards and safety upgrades and for failing to adapt security procedures to a deteriorating security environment.[343] It focused its criticism on the department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security and Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs; four State Department officials at the assistant secretary level and below were removed from their posts as a consequence.[344] Clinton said she accepted the conclusions of the report and that changes were underway to implement its suggested recommendations.[343] Clinton gave Congressional testimony on the Benghazi attack on January 23, 2013. She defended her actions in response to the incident and, while still accepting formal responsibility, said she had had no direct role in specific discussions beforehand regarding consulate security.[345] Congressional Republicans challenged her on several points, to which she sometimes responded angrily or emotionally. In particular, after persistent questioning from Republican Senator Ron Johnson about allegations that UN Ambassador Susan Rice had intentionally misled the public several days after the attack with inaccurate "talking points", Clinton responded with the heated and much-quoted rejoinder, "With all due respect, the fact is we had four dead Americans. Was it because of a protest or was it because of guys out for a walk one night who decided that they'd they go kill some Americans? What difference at this point does it make? It is our job to figure out what happened and do everything we can to prevent it from ever happening again, Senator."[345][346]

In December 2012, Clinton was hospitalized for a few days for treatment of a blood clot in her right transverse venous sinus.[347] Her doctors had discovered the clot during a follow-up examination for a concussion she had sustained when she had fainted and fallen nearly three weeks earlier, after developing severe dehydration from a viral intestinal ailment acquired during a trip to Europe.[347][348] The clot, which caused no immediate neurological injury, was treated with anticoagulant medication, and her doctors said she was expected to make a full recovery.[348][nb 13]

Throughout her time in office, and in her final speech concluding it, Clinton viewed "smart power" as the strategy for asserting U.S. leadership and values – in a world of varied threats, weakened central governments, and increasingly important nongovernmental entities – by combining military hard power with diplomacy and U.S. soft power capacities in global economics, development aid, technology, creativity, and human rights advocacy.[329][352] As such, she became the first secretary of state to methodically implement the smart power approach.[353] In debates over use of military force, she was generally one of the more hawkish voices in the administration.[317][354] She greatly expanded the State Department's use of social media, including Facebook and Twitter, both to get its message out and to help empower people vis-à-vis their rulers.[329] And in the Mideast turmoil, Clinton particularly saw an opportunity to advance one of the central themes of her tenure, the empowerment and welfare of women and girls worldwide.[173] Moreover, she viewed women's rights and human rights as critical for U.S. security interests.[316] In turn, there was a trend of women around the world finding more opportunities, and in some cases feeling safer, as the result of her actions and visibility.[355]

Clinton visited 112 countries during her tenure, making her the most widely traveled secretary of state[356][nb 14] (Time magazine wrote that "Clinton's endurance is legendary").[329] The first secretary of state to visit countries such as Togo and Timor-Leste, she believed that in-person visits were more important than ever in the virtual age.[359] As early as March 2011 she indicated she was not interested in serving a second term as Secretary of State should Obama be re-elected in 2012;[328] in December 2012, following that re-election, Obama nominated Senator John Kerry to be Clinton's successor.[348] Her last day as Secretary of State was February 1, 2013.[360] On her departure, analysts commented that Clinton's tenure did not bring any signature diplomatic breakthroughs as other Secretaries of State,[318][319] and highlighted her focus on goals that she thought were less tangible but would have more lasting effect.[361]

Clinton Foundation and post-State activities

Clinton standing behind lectern
Clinton in September 2014

When Clinton left the State Department, it marked the first time she was a fully private citizen in thirty years.[362] While she had no firm plans for the future other than rest,[360] she soon began work on another volume of memoirs. In September 2014, she became a grandmother when daughter Chelsea gave birth to a baby girl named Charlotte.[363]

She and her daughter joined her husband as named members of the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation in 2013.[364] There she focused on early childhood development efforts, including an initiative called Too Small to Fail and a $600 million initiative to encourage the enrollment of girls in secondary schools worldwide, led by former Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard.[364][365] She also led the No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project, a partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the Beijing conference in 1995;[366] its March 2015 report said that while "There has never been a better time in history to be born a woman ... this data shows just how far we still have to go."[367] The foundation began accepting new donations from foreign governments, which it had stopped doing while she was secretary.[nb 15] Clinton subsequently resigned from the foundation's board in April 2015 when she began her presidential campaign; the foundation said it would accept new foreign governmental donations from six western nations only.[nb 15]

She also began making appearances on the paid speaking circuit, receiving about $200,000 per engagement, as well as making some unpaid speeches on behalf of the foundation.[370] For the fifteen months ending in March 2015, Clinton earned over $11 million from her speeches, a total that rose to over $25 million when her husband's speeches were included.[371]

In March 2015, Clinton's practice of using her own private e-mail address and server throughout her time as Secretary of State, rather than departmental ones, gained widespread public attention due to concerns about the security of e-mails she sent and received, the availability and preservation of them for Freedom of Information Act requests and the archival historical record, and whether her actions had violated any federal laws, regulations, or guidelines.[372][373] In response, Clinton said she had a few months earlier turned over all of her work-related e-mails to the State Department pursuant to their request and that she wanted them made public,[373] but that she would not turn over any personal e-mails and had deleted them.[374] The House Select Committee on Benghazi requested her e-mail server be independently examined to verify her assertion, but Clinton's lawyer said that all remaining e-mails had been removed and were no longer available.[374] The State Department began releasing the e-mails she gave them in May, 2015.[375]

2016 presidential campaign

While Clinton had long indicated that she had no interest in running for president again,[360][376] she left the State Department with very high approval ratings,[377] and polls have indicated her the overwhelming favorite among Democrats for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination.[360][362][378] By September 2013, amid continual political and media speculation, Clinton said she was considering a run but was in no hurry to decide.[378] Meanwhile, a campaign-in-waiting came into place, including a large donor network, experienced operatives, the Ready for Hillary and Priorities USA Action political action committees, and other infrastructure.[379]

On April 12, 2015, speculation ended as Clinton formally announced her candidacy via email and the release of a video saying, "Everyday Americans need a champion. And I want to be that champion."[380] She began her campaign by making small-scale trips to early primary and caucus states and engaging in fundraising activities.[381]

Political positions

Several organizations attempted to measure Clinton's place on the political spectrum scientifically using her Senate votes. National Journal‍ '​s 2004 study of roll-call votes assigned Clinton a rating of 30 in the political spectrum relative to the Senate at the time, with a rating of 1 being most liberal and 100 being most conservative.[382] National Journal's subsequent rankings placed her as the 32nd-most liberal senator in 2006 and 16th-most liberal senator in 2007.[383] A 2004 analysis by political scientists Joshua D. Clinton of Princeton University and Simon Jackman and Doug Rivers of Stanford University found her to be likely the sixth-to-eighth-most liberal Senator.[384] The Almanac of American Politics, edited by Michael Barone and Richard E. Cohen, rated her votes from 2003 through 2006 as liberal or conservative, with 100 as the highest rating, in three areas: Economic, Social, and Foreign. Averaged for the four years, the ratings are: Economic = 75 liberal, 23 conservative; Social = 83 liberal, 6 conservative; Foreign = 66 liberal, 30 conservative. Total average = 75 liberal, 20 conservative.[nb 16]

Interest groups also gave Clinton scores based on how well her Senate votes aligned with the positions of the group. Through 2008, she had an average lifetime 90 percent "Liberal Quotient" from Americans for Democratic Action[385] and a lifetime 8 percent rating from the American Conservative Union.[386]

In a Gallup poll conducted during May 2005, 54 percent of respondents considered Clinton a liberal, 30 percent considered her a moderate, and 9 percent considered her a conservative.[387]

Writings and recordings

Informal pose of Clinton, 2011
Clinton in February 2011

As First Lady of the United States, Clinton published a weekly syndicated newspaper column titled "Talking It Over" from 1995 to 2000, distributed by Creators Syndicate.[388] It focused on her experiences and those of women, children and families she met during her travels around the world.[2]

In 1996, Clinton presented a vision for the children of America in the book It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us. The book made the Best Seller list of The New York Times and Clinton received the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in 1997 for the book's audio recording.[389]

Other books published by Clinton when she was First Lady include Dear Socks, Dear Buddy: Kids' Letters to the First Pets (1998) and An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History (2000). In 2001, she wrote an afterword to the children's book Beatrice's Goat.[390]

In 2003, Clinton released a 562-page autobiography, Living History, for which publisher Simon & Schuster paid Clinton a near-record advance of $8 million.[391] The book set a first-week sales record for a nonfiction work,[392] went on to sell more than one million copies in the first month following publication,[393] and was translated into twelve foreign languages.[394] Clinton's audio recording of the book earned her a nomination for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album.[395]

In 2014, Clinton published a second memoir, Hard Choices, which focused on her time as secretary of state. It has sold about 250,000 copies.[396]

Cultural and political image

Hillary Clinton has been featured in the media and popular culture from a wide spectrum of perspectives. In 1995, writer Todd Purdum of The New York Times characterized Clinton as a Rorschach test,[397] an assessment echoed at the time by feminist writer and activist Betty Friedan, who said, "Coverage of Hillary Clinton is a massive Rorschach test of the evolution of women in our society."[398]

Three-story, red brick building
Clinton worked at Rose Law Firm for fifteen years. Her professional career and political involvement set the stage for public reaction to her as First Lady.

Clinton has often been described in the popular media as a polarizing figure, with some arguing otherwise.[399] James Madison University political science professor Valerie Sulfaro's 2007 study used the American National Election Studies' "feeling thermometer" polls, which measure the degree of opinion about a political figure, to find that such polls during Clinton's First Lady years confirm the "conventional wisdom that Hillary Clinton is a polarizing figure", with the added insight that "affect towards Mrs. Clinton as first lady tended to be very positive or very negative, with a fairly constant one fourth of respondents feeling ambivalent or neutral".[400] University of California, San Diego political science professor Gary Jacobson's 2006 study of partisan polarization found that in a state-by-state survey of job approval ratings of the state's senators, Clinton had the fourth-largest partisan difference of any senator, with a 50 percentage point difference in approval between New York's Democrats and Republicans.[401]

Northern Illinois University political science professor Barbara Burrell's 2000 study found that Clinton's Gallup poll favorability numbers broke sharply along partisan lines throughout her time as First Lady, with 70 to 90 percent of Democrats typically viewing her favorably while only 20 to 40 percent of Republicans did.[402] University of Wisconsin–Madison political science professor Charles Franklin analyzed her record of favorable versus unfavorable ratings in public opinion polls, and found that there was more variation in them during her First Lady years than her Senate years.[403] The Senate years showed favorable ratings around 50 percent and unfavorable ratings in the mid-40 percent range; Franklin noted that, "This sharp split is, of course, one of the more widely remarked aspects of Sen. Clinton's public image."[403] McGill University professor of history Gil Troy titled his 2006 biography of her Hillary Rodham Clinton: Polarizing First Lady, and wrote that after the 1992 campaign, Clinton "was a polarizing figure, with 42 percent [of the public] saying she came closer to their values and lifestyle than previous first ladies and 41 percent disagreeing."[404] Troy further wrote that Hillary Clinton "has been uniquely controversial and contradictory since she first appeared on the national radar screen in 1992"[405] and that she "has alternately fascinated, bedeviled, bewitched, and appalled Americans."[405]

Line chart
Hillary Rodham Clinton's Gallup Poll favorable and unfavorable ratings, 1992–2015.[406] The ratings show her as a controversial First Lady whose ratings hit a low following the Hillarycare failure and a high following the Lewinsky scandal. Opinion about her was closely divided during her 2000 Senate campaign, mildly positive during her time as a senator, and then closely divided again during her 2008 presidential campaign. As secretary of state, she enjoyed widespread approval, before dipping as her tenure ended and more so as she became viewed as a presidential candidate again.[407]

Burrell's study found women consistently rating Clinton more favorably than men by about ten percentage points during her First Lady years.[402] Jacobson's study found a positive correlation across all senators between being women and receiving a partisan-polarized response.[401] Colorado State University communication studies professor Karrin Vasby Anderson describes the First Lady position as a "site" for American womanhood, one ready made for the symbolic negotiation of female identity.[408] In particular, Anderson states there has been a cultural bias towards traditional first ladies and a cultural prohibition against modern first ladies; by the time of Clinton, the First Lady position had become a site of heterogeneity and paradox.[408] Burrell, as well as biographers Jeff Gerth and Don Van Natta, Jr., note that Clinton achieved her highest approval ratings as First Lady late in 1998, not for professional or political achievements of her own, but for being seen as the victim of her husband's very public infidelity.[201][402] University of Pennsylvania communications professor Kathleen Hall Jamieson saw Hillary Clinton as an exemplar of the double bind, who though able to live in a "both-and" world of both career and family, nevertheless "became a surrogate on whom we projected our attitudes about attributes once thought incompatible", leading to her being placed in a variety of no-win situations.[398] Quinnipiac University media studies professor Lisa Burns found press accounts frequently framing Clinton both as an exemplar of the modern professional working mother and as a political interloper interested in usurping power for herself.[409] University of Indianapolis English professor Charlotte Templin found political cartoonists using a variety of stereotypes – such as gender reversal, radical feminist as emasculator, and the wife the husband wants to get rid of – to portray Hillary Clinton as violating gender norms.[410]

Over fifty books and scholarly works have been written about Hillary Rodham Clinton, from many perspectives. A 2006 survey by The New York Observer found "a virtual cottage industry" of "anti-Clinton literature",[411] put out by Regnery Publishing and other conservative imprints,[411] with titles such as Madame Hillary: The Dark Road to the White House, Hillary's Scheme: Inside the Next Clinton's Ruthless Agenda to Take the White House, and Can She Be Stopped? : Hillary Clinton Will Be the Next President of the United States Unless .... Books praising Clinton did not sell nearly as well[411] (other than the memoirs written by her and her husband). When she ran for Senate in 2000, a number of fundraising groups such as Save Our Senate and the Emergency Committee to Stop Hillary Rodham Clinton sprang up to oppose her.[412] Van Natta, Jr., found that Republican and conservative groups viewed her as a reliable "bogeyman" to mention in fundraising letters,[413] on a par with Ted Kennedy and the equivalent of Democratic and liberal appeals mentioning Newt Gingrich.[413]

Side profile of Clinton, 2009
Hillary Rodham Clinton, 2009

Going into the early stages of her presidential campaign for 2008, a Time magazine cover showed a large picture of her, with two checkboxes labeled "Love Her", "Hate Her",[414] while Mother Jones titled its profile of her "Harpy, Hero, Heretic: Hillary".[415] Democratic netroots activists consistently rated Clinton very low in polls of their desired candidates,[416] while some conservative figures such as Bruce Bartlett and Christopher Ruddy were declaring a Hillary Clinton presidency not so bad after all.[417][418] An October 2007 cover of The American Conservative magazine was titled "The Waning Power of Hillary Hate".[419] By December 2007, communications professor Jamieson observed that there was a large amount of misogyny present about Clinton on the Internet,[420] up to and including Facebook and other sites devoted to depictions reducing Clinton to sexual humiliation.[420] She noted, in response to widespread comments on Clinton's laugh,[421] that "We know that there's language to condemn female speech that doesn't exist for male speech. We call women's speech shrill and strident. And Hillary Clinton's laugh was being described as a cackle."[420] The "bitch" epithet, which had been applied to Clinton going back to her First Lady days and had been seen by Karrin Vasby Anderson as a tool of containment against women in American politics,[422] flourished during the campaign, especially on the Internet but via conventional media as well.[423] Following Clinton's "choked up moment" and related incidents in the run-up to the January 2008 New Hampshire primary, both The New York Times and Newsweek found that discussion of gender's role in the campaign had moved into the national political discourse.[424][425] Newsweek editor Jon Meacham summed the relationship between Clinton and the American public by saying that the New Hampshire events "brought an odd truth to light: though Hillary Rodham Clinton has been on the periphery or in the middle of national life for decades ... she is one of the most recognizable but least understood figures in American politics."[425]

Once she became Secretary of State, Clinton's image seemed to improve dramatically among the American public and become one of a respected world figure.[316][426] She gained consistently high approval ratings (by 2011, the highest of her career except during the Lewinsky scandal),[427] and her favorable-unfavorable ratings during 2010 and 2011 were easily the highest of any active, nationally prominent American political figure.[426][428] A 2012 Internet meme, "Texts from Hillary", was based around a photograph of Clinton sitting on a military plane wearing sunglasses and using a mobile phone and imagined the recipients and contents of her text messages. It achieved viral popularity among younger, technically adept followers of politics.[429] Clinton sought to explain her popularity by saying in early 2012, "There's a certain consistency to who I am and what I do, and I think people have finally said, 'Well, you know, I kinda get her now.'"[316] She continued to do well in Gallup's most admired man and woman poll; in 2014 she was named the most admired woman by Americans for the thirteenth straight time and the nineteenth time overall, although her favorability ratings dropped somewhat after she left office and became viewed in the context of partisan politics again.[430]

Electoral history

New York United States Senate election, 2000
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Hillary Rodham Clinton 3,747,310 55.3
Republican Rick Lazio 2,915,730 43.0
New York United States Senate election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Hillary Rodham Clinton 3,008,428 67.0 +11.7
Republican John Spencer 1,392,189 31.0 -12.0


  1. ^ a b c d As of 1993, she had not legally changed her name from Hillary Rodham.[94] Bill Clinton's advisers thought her use of her maiden name to be one of the reasons for his 1980 gubernatorial re-election loss. During the following winter, Vernon Jordan, Jr. suggested to Hillary Rodham that she start using the name Clinton, and she began to do so publicly with her husband's February 1982 campaign announcement to regain that office. She later wrote that "I learned the hard way that some voters in Arkansas were seriously offended by the fact that I kept my maiden name".[95] Once he was elected again, she made a point of using "Hillary Rodham Clinton" in work she did as First Lady of the state.[70] Once she became First Lady of the United States in 1993, she publicly stated that she wanted to be known as "Hillary Rodham Clinton".[94] (This announcement was parodied by the May 1993 film spoof Hot Shots! Part Deux, in which all the female characters were given the middle name "Rodham"; see IMDB entry.) She has authored all of her books under that name. She continued to use that name on her website and elsewhere once she was a U.S. Senator.[96] When she ran for president during 2007–08, she used the name "Hillary Clinton" or just "Hillary" in campaign materials.[96] She used "Hillary Rodham Clinton" again in official materials as Secretary of State.[97] As of the 2015 launch of her second presidential campaign, she has again switched to using "Hillary Clinton" in campaign materials.[97]
  2. ^ In 1995, Hillary Clinton said her mother had named her after Sir Edmund Hillary, co-first mountaineer to scale Mount Everest, and that was the reason for the less-common "two L's" spelling of her name. However, the Everest climb did not take place until 1953, more than five years after she was born. In October 2006, a Clinton spokeswoman said she was not named after the mountain climber. Instead, this account of her name's origin "was a sweet family story her mother shared to inspire greatness in her daughter, to great results I might add."[1]
  3. ^ Research by The New York Sun in 2007 found it unclear exactly which cases beyond child custody ones Rodham worked on at the Treuhaft firm.[44] Anti-Clinton writers such as Barbara Olson would later charge Hillary Clinton with never repudiating Treuhaft's ideology, and for retaining social and political ties with his wife and fellow communist Jessica Mitford.[45] Further Sun research revealed that Mitford and Hillary Clinton were not close, and had a falling out over a 1980 Arkansas prisoner case.[46]
  4. ^ For the start date, see Brock 1996, p. 96. Secondary sources give inconsistent dates as to when her time as chair ended. Primary sources indicate that sometime between about April 1980 and September 1980, Rodham was replaced as chair by F. William McCalpin. See Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1981, "House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Departments of State, Justice, Commerce, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations", U.S. House of Representatives, 1980. Rodham is still chair after having given birth "a few weeks ago"; Chelsea Clinton was born on February 27, 1980. And see Background release, Legal Services Corporation, September 1980, "Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice, of the Committee of the Judiciary, House of Representatives", September 21, 27, 1979, pp. 388–403, exact reference p. 398, which shows McCalpin as chair in September 1980.
  5. ^ During the political damage control over the Gennifer Flowers episode during the 1992 campaign, Clinton said in the joint 60 Minutes interview, "I'm not sitting here as some little woman 'standing by my man' like Tammy Wynette. I'm sitting here because I love him and I respect him, and I honor what he's been through and what we've been through together." The seemingly sneering reference to country music provoked immediate criticism that Clinton was culturally tone-deaf, and Tammy Wynette herself did not like the remark because her classic song "Stand by Your Man" is not written in the first person.[122] Wynette added that Clinton had "offended every true country music fan and every person who has 'made it on their own' with no one to take them to a White House."[123] A few days later, on Primetime Live, Hillary Clinton apologized to Wynette. Clinton would later write that she had been careless in her choice of words and that "the fallout from my reference to Tammy Wynette was instant – as it deserved to be – and brutal."[124] The two women later resolved their differences, with Wynette appearing at a Clinton fund raiser.
  6. ^ Less than two months after the Tammy Wynette remarks, Clinton was facing questions about whether she could have avoided possible conflicts of interest between her governor husband and work given to the Rose Law Firm, when she remarked, "I've done the best I can to lead my life ... You know, I suppose I could have stayed home and baked cookies and had teas, but what I decided to do was fulfill my profession, which I entered before my husband was in public life."[125] The "cookies and teas" part of this statement prompted even more culture-based criticism of Clinton's apparent distaste for women who had chosen to be homemakers; the remark became a recurring campaign liability.[126] Clinton subsequently offered up some cookie recipes as a way of making amends, and would later write of her chagrin: "Besides, I've done quite a lot of cookie baking in my life, and tea-pouring too!"[125]
  7. ^ The Eleanor Roosevelt "discussions" were first reported in 1996 by Washington Post writer Bob Woodward; they had begun from the start of Hillary Clinton's time as First Lady.[137] Following the Democrats' loss of congressional control in the 1994 elections, Clinton had engaged the services of Human Potential Movement proponent Jean Houston. Houston encouraged Clinton to pursue the Roosevelt connection, and while no psychic techniques were used with Clinton, critics and comics immediately suggested that Clinton was holding séances with Eleanor Roosevelt. The White House stated that this was merely a brainstorming exercise, and a private poll later indicated that most of the public believed these were indeed just imaginary conversations, with the remainder believing that communication with the dead was actually possible.[138] In her 2003 autobiography, Clinton titled an entire chapter "Conversations with Eleanor", and stated that holding "imaginary conversations [is] actually a useful mental exercise to help analyze problems, provided you choose the right person to visualize. Eleanor Roosevelt was ideal [as a trail-blazer and controversial First Lady]."[139]
  8. ^ Clinton was referring to the Arkansas Project and its funder Richard Mellon Scaife, Kenneth Starr's connections to Scaife, Regnery Publishing and its connections to Lucianne Goldberg and Linda Tripp, Jerry Falwell, and others.[197]
  9. ^ In 2014, Secretary of Defense Gates related that after Clinton had left the Senate and become Secretary of State, she told President Obama that her opposition to the 2007 Iraq surge had been political, due to her facing a strong challenge from the anti-Iraq War Obama in the upcoming Democratic presidential primary.[249]
  10. ^ When asked for her reaction to an Obama remark about the possibility that his campaign represented false hope, Clinton responded: "I would point to the fact that Dr. King's dream began to be realized when President Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, when he was able to get through Congress something that President Kennedy was hopeful to do, the President before had not even tried, but it took a president to get it done. That dream became a reality, the power of that dream became real in people's lives because we had a president who said we are going to do it, and actually got it accomplished."[272]
  11. ^ "2008 Democratic Popular Vote". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved July 8, 2008.  The popular vote count for a nomination process is unofficial, and meaningless in determining the nominee. It is difficult to come up with precise totals due to some caucus states not reporting popular vote totals and thus having to be estimated. It is further difficult to compare Clinton and Obama's totals, due to only her name having been on the ballot in the Michigan primary.[284]
  12. ^ These efforts were not immediately rewarded, largely due to the unpopularity of drone attacks in Pakistan and other anti-terrorism U.S. actions. Polls in Pakistan and other Muslim countries showed approval of the U.S. declined among its citizens between 2009 and 2012 and confidence that Clinton was doing the right thing in world affairs was also low. The confidence ratings for Clinton were high in most European countries and generally mixed in the BRIC countries.[314]
  13. ^ While generally experiencing good health in her life, Clinton had previously had a potentially serious blood clot in her knee while First Lady in 1998, for which she had required anticoagulant treatment.[349] An elbow fracture and subsequent painful recuperation had caused Clinton to miss two foreign trips as Secretary of State in 2009.[350] The 2012 concussion and clot episode caused Clinton to postpone her Congressional testimony on the Benghazi attack and also to miss any foreign trips planned for the rest of her tenure.[348] After returning to public activity, she wore special glasses (rather than her usual contact lenses) to deal with lingering effects of the concussion.[351]
  14. ^ Clinton's 112 countries visited broke Madeleine Albright's previous mark of 96.[357] Clinton's sum of 956,733 air miles traveled, however, fell short of Condoleezza Rice's record for mileage.[356] That total, 1,059,207, was bolstered late in Rice's tenure by repeated trips to the Middle East.[358]
  15. ^ a b During Clinton's tenure there were several cases where foreign governments continued making donations to the Clinton Foundation at the same level they had before Clinton became secretary, which was permissible under the agreement forged before she took office, and also one instance of a new donation, $500,000 from Algeria for earthquake relief in Haiti, that was outside the bounds of the continuation provision and should have received a special State Department ethics review but did not.[368] The foundation's new stance as of April 2015 and Clinton's presidential candidacy was to accept foreign donations only from the governments of Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom.[369]
  16. ^ See Barone, Michael; Cohen, Richard E. (2008). The Almanac of American Politics. National Journal. p. 1126.  And 2006 edition of same, 1152. The scores for individual years are [highest rating 100, format: liberal, (conservative)]: 2003: Economic = 90 (7), Social = 85 (0), Foreign = 79 (14). Average = 85 (7). 2004: Economic = 63 (36), Social = 82 (0), Foreign = 58 (41). Average = 68 (26). 2005: Economic = 84 (15), Social = 83 (10), Foreign = 66 (29). Average = 78 (18). 2006: Economic = 63 (35), Social = 80 (14), Foreign = 62 (35). Average = 68 (28).


  1. ^ "Hillary vs. Hillary". October 26, 2006. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Hillary Rodham Clinton". The White House. Retrieved August 22, 2006. 
  3. ^ O'Laughlin, Dania (Summer 2003). "Edgewater Hospital 1929–2001". Edgewater Historical Society. Retrieved June 10, 2007. 
  4. ^ Bernstein 2007, pp. 18, 34.
  5. ^ a b Roberts, Gary Boyd. "Notes on the Ancestry of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton". New England Historic Genealogical Society. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2012. 
  6. ^ Bernstein 2007, pp. 17–18.
  7. ^ Smolenyak, Megan (April–May 2015). "Hillary Clinton's Celtic Roots". Irish America. 
  8. ^ a b c Brock 1996, p. 4. Her father was an outspoken Republican, while her mother kept quiet but was "basically a Democrat". See also Bernstein 2007, p. 16.
  9. ^ Gerth and Van Natta Jr. 2007, p. 14.
  10. ^ a b Morris 1996, p. 113.
  11. ^ a b Bernstein 2007, p. 29.
  12. ^ a b Bernstein 2007, pp. 30–31.
  13. ^ Maraniss 1995, p. 255. She was also voted "most likely to succeed".
  14. ^ Bernstein 2007, p. 13.
  15. ^ Gerth and Van Natta Jr. 2007, p. 19.
  16. ^ Middendorf, J. William (2006). Glorious Disaster: Barry Goldwater's Presidential Campaign And the Origins of the Conservative Movement. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04573-1.  p. 266.
  17. ^ Troy 2006, p. 15.
  18. ^ Gerth and Van Natta Jr. 2007, pp. 18–21. The teacher, Paul Carlson, and the minister, Donald Jones, came into conflict in Park Ridge; Clinton would later see that "as an early indication of the cultural, political and religious fault lines that developed across America in the [next] forty years" (Clinton 2003, p. 23).
  19. ^ Clinton, Hillary Rodham (May 29, 1992). "Hillary Rodham Clinton Remarks to Wellesley College Class of 1992". Wellesley College. Retrieved June 1, 2007. 
  20. ^ a b Clinton 2003, p. 31.
  21. ^ "Wellesley College Republicans: History and Purpose". Wellesley College. May 16, 2007. Archived from the original on July 15, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2007.  Gives organization's prior name.
  22. ^ Milton, Joyce (1999). The First Partner: Hillary Rodham Clinton. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-15501-4.  pp. 27–28
  23. ^ Brock 1996, pp. 12–13.
  24. ^ Bernstein 2007, p. 50. Bernstein states she believed this combination was possible and that no equation better describes the adult Hillary Clinton.
  25. ^ a b c d e Kenney, Charles (January 12, 1993). "Hillary: The Wellesley Years: The woman who will live in the White House was a sharp-witted activist in the class of '69". The Boston Globe. 
  26. ^ a b c d e Leibovich, Mark (September 7, 2007). "In Turmoil of '68, Clinton Found a New Voice". The New York Times. 
  27. ^ a b Rodham, Hillary (May 31, 1969). "Hillary D. Rodham's 1969 Student Commencement Speech". Wellesley College. Retrieved August 22, 2006. 
  28. ^ a b c Dedman, Bill (May 9, 2007). "Reading Hillary Rodham's hidden thesis". MSNBC. 
  29. ^ a b Cooper, Helene. "Hillary Rodham Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2008. 
  30. ^ a b Gerth and Van Natta Jr. 2007, pp. 34–36.
  31. ^ "Brooke Speech Challenged by Graduate". Fitchburg Sentinel. June 2, 1969. 
  32. ^ "Brooke Speech Draws Reply". Nevada State Journal. June 2, 1969. 
  33. ^ "The Class of '69". Life. June 20, 1969. pp. 28–33.  The article features Rodham and two student commencement speakers from other schools, with photos and excerpts from their speeches.
  34. ^ Bernstein 2007, p. 70.
  35. ^ Morris 1996, p. 139; Bernstein 2007, p. 105. Clinton would later write, and repeat on the Late Show with David Letterman, that sliming fish was the best preparation she would ever have for living in Washington. Clinton 2003, pp. 42–43.
  36. ^ a b c "Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (1947–)". The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved April 8, 2007. 
  37. ^ a b Gerth and Van Natta Jr. 2007, pp. 42–43.
  38. ^ a b c Bernstein 2007, p. 75.
  39. ^ The authors of Beyond the Best Interests of the Child were Center director Al Solnit, Yale Law professor Joe Goldstein, and Anna Freud.
  40. ^ Morris 1996, pp. 142–143.
  41. ^ Bernstein 2007, pp. 71–74.
  42. ^ Weil, Martin (August 8, 2009). "Anne Wexler, Political Adviser and Lobbyist, Dies at 79". The Washington Post. 
  43. ^ a b Bernstein 2007, pp. 82–83.
  44. ^ a b Gerstein, Josh (November 26, 2007). "Hillary Clinton's Radical Summer". The New York Sun. 
  45. ^ Olson 1999, pp. 56–57.
  46. ^ Gerstein, Josh (November 27, 2007). "Hillary Clinton's Left Hook". The New York Sun. 
  47. ^ Gerstein, Josh (November 26, 2007). "The Clintons' Berkeley Summer of Love". The New York Sun. 
  48. ^ Gerth and Van Natta Jr. 2007, pp. 48–49.
  49. ^ a b Bernstein 2007, p. 89.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "First Lady Biography: Hillary Clinton". National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved August 22, 2006. 
  51. ^ Rodham, Hillary (1973). "Children Under the Law". Harvard Educational Review 43 (4): 487–514. 
  52. ^ Troy 2006, p. 21.
  53. ^ a b c d Lewin, Tamar (August 24, 1992). "Legal Scholars See Distortion In Attacks on Hillary Clinton". The New York Times. 
  54. ^ Lindsey, Duncan; Sarri, Rosemary C. (1992). "What Hillary Rodham Clinton really said about children's rights and child policy" (PDF). Children and Youth Services Review 14 (6): 473–483. 
  55. ^ Bernstein 2007, pp. 91–92.
  56. ^ Brock 1996, p. 42.
  57. ^ a b c Bernstein 2007, pp. 94–96, 101–103.
  58. ^ Bernstein 2007, p. 62.
  59. ^ Maraniss 1995, p. 277.
  60. ^ Bernstein 2007, pp. 90, 120.
  61. ^ Bernstein 2007, p. 92; Allen and Parnes 2014, p. 149. Taking an out-of-date bar study class may have been a factor. Two-thirds (551 of 817) of the candidates passed, and Rodham did not tell even close friends of the failure until revealing it thirty years later in her autobiography.
  62. ^ Clinton 2003, p. 69.
  63. ^ Bernstein 2007, p. 92.
  64. ^ Clinton 2003, p. 70. Source for number of female faculty members.
  65. ^ Maraniss 1995, p. 328.
  66. ^ Bernstein 2007, pp. 62, 90, 117.
  67. ^ Clinton, Bill (2004). My Life. Knopf Publishing Group.  p. 244.
  68. ^ Bernstein 2007, p. 120.
  69. ^ a b Maraniss 1995, pp. 121–122.
  70. ^ a b c Kruse, Michael (April 14, 2015). "The long, hot summer Hillary Clinton became a politician". Politico. 
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Cited bibliography

Allen, Jonathan; Parnes, Amie (2014). HRC: State Secrets and the Rebirth of Hillary Clinton. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-8041-3675-0. 
Balz, Dan; Johnson, Haynes (2009). The Battle for America, 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary Election. New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-02111-3. 
Bernstein, Carl (2007). A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40766-9. 
Brock, David (1996). The Seduction of Hillary Rodham. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83451-0. 
Brower, Kate Andersen (2015). The Residence: Inside the Private World of The White House. New York: Harper. ISBN 0-06-230519-0. 
Burns, Lisa M. (2008). First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-391-1. 
Clinton, Hillary Rodham (2003). Living History. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2224-5. 
Gerth, Jeff; Van Natta, Don, Jr. (2007). Her Way: The Hopes and Ambitions of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-01742-6. 
Ghattas, Kim (2013). The Secretary: A Journey with Hillary Clinton from Beirut to the Heart of American Power. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-9511-X. 
Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-173363-6. 
Kornblut, Anne E. (2009). Notes from the Cracked Ceiling: Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and What It Will Take for a Woman to Win. New York: Crown Books. ISBN 0-307-46425-3. 
Maraniss, David (1995). First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-87109-9. 
Morris, Roger (1996). Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-2804-8. 
Olson, Barbara (1999). Hell to Pay: The Unfolding Story of Hillary Rodham Clinton. Washington: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-197-9. 
Troy, Gil (2006). Hillary Rodham Clinton: Polarizing First Lady. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1488-5. 

External links

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